DESIGN AND EVALUATION MULTIMEDIA COURSEWARE
BASIC STATISTIC AND SPSS APPLICATION :
ONE STUDY IN INDONESIA
Supported by : SEAMEO RECSAM, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia and Curtin University of Technology Perth Australia.
The aim of this study is to design and evaluate a courseware ” Basic Statistic And SPSS Aplication” this multimedia courseware have been developed by using Macromedia Flash Professional 8.0 software, and other software such as Adobe Photo Shop C.S, Corel Photo Shop 11, SnageIt 6.0, Cool Edit Professional 2.0 and SPSS 13.0 that may improve its impressing. This courseware designed based on instructional design model by Hannafin and Peck. This courseware adopts in form of tutorial approach which is by Alessi and Trollip takes into consideration various aspect such as content aspect, pedagogy, learning theory, learning strategy and technical. This courseware based on minimalist learning theory also use the self directed learning strategy, mastery learning and anchored learning. The pilot test is carry out in National University of Malaysia Bangi consisted of 20 people of master student of Education in IT and Resources. Cronbach’s Alpha score is 0.88 that mean the instrument is reliable. The courseware summative test was conducted in Teachers Training Development Centre of Social Science and Humaniora Malang Indonesia, consist of 30 teacher’s trainers. Data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 13. Data analisys showed this courseware has the character of the interactive and the user interest and could improve the user motivation to learn the basic statistic and SPSS application, Data analisys showed also show that this courseware has glorious is application of learning theory and learning strategy which have in specification in objective.
Progress in technological area of computer science is giving of amenity to all teachers or educator, for processed, saving, printing, and analyzing data swiftly and precisely. To increase the quality of educator resource environment represent the compulsion. Therefore PPPG IPS and PMP, having responsibility and permission to increase resources of educator quality have programmed the activity of education and training about computer exploiting in data analysis. In this study researcher developed a courseware titling “ Basic Statistic and SPSS Application” ( Asas statistik dan Aplikasi SPSS) for teacher participant of Teachers Training Development Centre of Social Science and Humaniora (PPPG IPS dan PMP) Malang Indonesia. The courseware was developed based on need assessment of teachers training which is conducted in Teachers training Development Centre of Social science and Humaniora.
BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The participant of teacher’s training in PPPG IPS and PMP are adult people. They are a people who have many experience and self concept. They have a variety of background of culture and job experience. In these case, to give a good service to the teachers as participant is needed a suitable strategy approach for adult learning. The strategy approach must be different with the school’s training or traditional education. In order that is needed a strategy approach that more suitable with self concept, readiness to learn, orientation to learn, experience and motivation to learn of all training participant. In educational world this strategies approach known as Adult Learning (Knowles 1994).
Teachers Training Development Centre Of Social Science and Humaniora has a authority to improve Educational human resources based on Decree of Minister of Education of Indonesia No : 0529/0/1990 date 14 August 1990 (Surat Keputusan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan (Mendikbud) Republik Indonesia Nomor : 0529/0/1990 tanggal 14 Agustus 1990) is to implement training and technical education development in order to improve teacher’s competency.
Carroll (1990) states: “Adult learners are not blank slates; they don’t have funnels in their heads; they have little patience for being treated as “don’t knows”. New users are always learning computer methods in the context of specific preexisting goals and expectations.” (p. 11) Carroll also identifies the roots of minimalism in the constructivism of Bruner and Piaget. That why every teacher have to own the deftness in operating and utilize computer the importance of improvement quality personally.
The Minimalist theory is a framework for the design of instruction, especially training materials for computer users (Carroll 1998)
The theory suggests that :
(1) All learning tasks should be meaningful and self-contained activities.
(2) Learners should be given realistic projects as quickly as possible
(3) Instruction should permit self-directed reasoning and improvising by increasing the number of active learning activities.
(4) Training materials and activities should provide for error recognition and recovery.
(5) There should be a close linkage between the training and actual system.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
One of the function of Teachers Training Development Center of Social Science and Humaniora Malang Indonesia (PPPG IPS PMP Malang) is to publish instructional module for course participants that must be revised every years according to course curriculum. In 2005 the team module developer of PPPG IPS PMP conducted a instructional book using title “Pemanfaatan Komputer dalam Analisa Data Manajemen KBM” This book was published by PPPG IPS PMP under control of Departemen Pendidikan Nasional Direktorat Jenderal Peningkatan Mutu Pendidik dan Tenaga Kependidikan Jakarta” Unfortunately, the result of training monitory impact showed any an ineffectiveness in understanding the book content. (Report from Publication division of PPPG IPS PMP Malang, 2006).
Founded on interview result with the instructors, teachers and training participants in PPPG IPS PMP about statistical course and SPSS software, there are still a lot of found an opinion that statistic is difficult to comprehended and it is not interesting. The consequently it was needed more Instructional media to provide a tutorial approach in order to be easier to comprehend a statistical concept and how to use SPSS software to cover statistical problem.
This study use “Pemanfaatan Komputer Dalam Analisa data Manajemen KBM” modul that had have published by PPPG IPS and PMP Malang Indonesia as a resources of this courseware. The impression of instructional design must be related with learning theory and learning strategy. Bednar et al. (1995) state that process of designing and developing instructional learning material have to based on learning theory and learning strategy. It is not just about content and skill. In order to develop a courseware must choose a suitable instructional design model according to situation and condition is needed (Gustafon & Branch 1997). As a process of development of the courseware in this study based on instructional design model of Hannafin & Peck ( 1988).
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to develop a interactive multimedia courseware using title “Asas statistik dan aplikasi SPSS” for instructional material teaching and learning in Teachers Training Development Centre of Social Science and Humaniora Malang Indonesia. This study is one of effort to produce an impressing instructional media toward teaching and learning. This product is expected could assist better to training participant in order to learn statistic and SPSS application.
OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
This study is implemented to reach any of objective bellow :
i. To develop Courseware using title ”Asas Statistik dan Aplikasi SPSS” for training participant in PPPG IPS DAN PMP Malang Indonesia.
ii. To determine that the pedagogical aspect of “ Asas Statistik dan Aplikasi SPSS” courseware was developed can assist better to training participant in PPPG IPS and PMP Malang Indonesia.
iii. To determine ”Asas Statistik dan Aplikasi SPSS” courseware developed can assist to visualize and make easier to comprehend about statistic and SPSS
iv. To determine ”Asas Statistik dan Aplikasi SPSS” courseware developed has interactive character and entertain when it is used.
v. To determine “Asas Statistik dan Aplikasi SPSS” courseware developed increase the learning motivation of teachers training participant in learning statistic and SPSS.
vi. To determine “Asas Statistik dan Aplikasi SPSS” courseware developed based on minimalist learning theory.
vii. To determine “ Asas Statistik dan Aplikasi SPSS” courseware developed based on self directed learning strategy, anchored learning strategy and mastery learning
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Very rare to find the multimedia courseware about basic statistic and SPSS application that can be directly to the case study of statistic problem bay tutorial approach. The significance of this study toward this courseware are :
1. Using multimedia study can enhance effort of teachers training participant to comprehend the content of his courseware especially in teaching and learning process, and has suitability with the matter of learning.
2. By the innovative and creative to mike interesting matter, this study can enhance the motivation of teachers training participant toward statistic and SPSS application.
3. To create the active learning and impressing to all teachers training participant toward statistic and SPSS application.
4. To create self directed learning practice using learning strategy.
Because of that researcher try to improve the best method to reach teaching and learning that suitable with the need assessment not only from impressing aspect but to give the contribution to PPPG IPS and PMP Indonesia about basic statistic and SPSS application as one of the material package as medium for teachers training participant.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
In the development process of basic statistic and SPSS application focused on the one of the PPPG IPS and PMP module is “Pemanfaatan Komputer Dalam Analisa Data Manajemen KBM” the content consist of the basic statistic such as introduction to data, sample, measure scale ans central tendency. The SPSS basic theory such as menu and toolbar, file, edit, etc. The case study is given to enhance comprehend toward statistic and SPSS such as Compare mean, Correlation, Regression, ANOVA. Learning practice can be done by user based on tutorial that already given. Because of the limitation of time this study process the researcher only use the sample consist of 30 people like an instructor and coach (Widyaiswara). The 30 people that randomized selected assumed can represented the population from the teacher training in PPPG IPS PMP Indonesia.
METHODOLOGY’S STRUCTURE OF STUDY
In this study consist of several step to develop the structured study correctly. This is must be done in order to make the study ease to do like the process based on ID models of Hannafin & Peck (1988)
According to Cressswell (2005) if the instrument ready to use its need to be conducted the pilot test in order to determine that the instrument can be understood by respondent. One pilot test had been conducted to 20 user who are capable in basic use of computer. The twenty persons of the respondent for pilot test are the Indonesian master student of Information and Resources in UKM (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia). Pilot test result show that all the items of instrument was can be understood by user and no bias item. Cronbanh’s alpha coefficient is used for determine the reliability of instrument. If the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient value more than 0.70 is the reliability value (Cooper & Emry 1995). In this study the Cronbanh’s alpha coefficient is 0.88 that mean the instrument is reliable.
The Basis statistic and SPSS Application courseware CD ROM together with the summative evaluation instrument was sent to PPPG IPS PMP Malang by post. The instrument was distributed to 30 people consist of the coaches (widyaiswara) and instructor in the class room. The courseware was presented until finish and repeating. Respondent fill the instrument based on their perception controlled by one leader an collected to determine that the instrument got 30 form. The result was collected and processed using Microsoft Excel to compress the data and sent back to researcher in Malaysia by e-mail.
FINDING AND RESULT
The Basic Statistic and SPSS Application Courseware (Asas Statistik dan Aplikasi SPSS) was developed using main software is Macromedia Flash Professional 8.0. and any addition software such as Adobe Photoshop CS for graphic design, Cool Edit Pro 2.0 for audio editing, Snagit 6.0 for video capture and editing, and Windows XP professional as operating system.
The computer equipment needed to run this basic statistic and SPSS application courseware base on the specification bellow :
1. Micro Computer
2. Processor Pentium III or higher
3. Random Access Memory (RAM) 128 MB or higher
4. CD ROM
5. 16 bit Sound Card
6. SVGA Monitor
7. Speaker active
8. Mouse and keyboard
FORMATIVE EVALUATION BY EXPERT
Based on Sterbinsky & Ross (2005) formative evaluation is used to provide response for designer in order to increase the quality of courseware conducted. The formative evaluation in the process of developing and implementation of the basic statistic and SPSS application courseware is conducted by interview with any expert such as Information and communication expert and educational expert. The expert who evaluated this courseware are : Dr. Mohd Arif Hj. Ismail as the researcher’s lecturer, and any lecturer from SEAMEO RECSAM. There are many problem was covered after formative evaluation in developing process was conducted, such as color changes, screen position, menu and button position.
SUMMATIVE TEST BY USER
Based on Morrison et al. (2007) the summative permit a designer or an instructor to reach unbiased, objective answer to evaluation question concerning expected program outcomes and than to decide whether the program is achieving those outcomes. Whit this evidence, the designer’s intuition can be supported or rejected, and or she has the fact for correctly informing other about the program result. In the end of the process of developing and implementation of basic statistic and SPSS application was conducted the summative evaluation based on courseware aspect needed as the table 4 bellow :
Based on the finding in chapter IV overall of finding show that the Basic Statistic and SPSS Application courseware was developed has fulfilled the specification in objective. The finding show that the Basic Statistic and SPSS Application courseware was developed can assist user or teachers training participant in learning statistic and SPSS.
Overall of percentages of content aspect has 55.12% on very agree scale and overall mean is 3.19 showed that the content of the Basic Statistic and SPSS Application courseware is in the good level. This finding is supported by the research of Lily & Mazanah (2000) showed that the higher student have a positive attitude toward use of Computer Assisted Instructional. The student has a positive attitude toward quality of courseware’s content.
The base principals of learning strategy method is teaching and learning activity have to anchored on the certain topic that can gain learner motivation (Chen 2000). The statement above support the finding of this courseware from the anchored learning strategy, self directed learning strategy and mastery learning aspect has case simulation that like the reality got the highest percentage is 76.7% in very agree scale and 20% in agree scale. It showed that this courseware glorious is application of d learning strategy which have in specification in objective.
There are three part of technical aspect are screen design, audio visual and navigation. Based on finding the three aspect above successfully applied in Basic Statistic and SPSS Application courseware. It is supported by Peter Law research (2001) state that learner will heap all their attention to the learning process using computer. It is because of the learner can involve their self in the exciting learning process situation including multimedia tool such as graphic, interactive animation, voice, music and video that can motivate the learner.
This study gives an addition value and various medium as instructional tool in PPPG IPS PMP Indonesia. This courseware can be an alternative tools in statistic and SPSS instructional medium, because this courseware support the Statistic and SPSS module was published by PPPG IPS PMP. This courseware also can be used by public society that learn statistic and SPSS. Teaching and learning strategy using this courseware is self directed learning or learner centered.
Based on the finding, the teacher training of statistic and SPSS more interesting and impressing the participant because this courseware can enhance the user’s motivation and comprehend toward certain topic related to what they want to learn. That is relevant with the minimalist principals application and learning strategy such as self directed learning, anchored learning and mastery learning. The general implication is the courseware can be used by every one who want to learn statistic and SPSS, not just in certain people but also who have not more skill in computer literacy.
There are any suggestion can be implemented in the other study next time :
1. The development of this courseware can be extended to another statistic topic in better and more complex of interactivity and multitasking.
2. The quality of graphic, video, and audio can be enhance using more sophisticated programming tools in order to gain the sophisticated result.
3. The learning content and learning activity have to be improved and to be more various then can be more exciting and impressing.
The basic statistic and SPSS application courseware was developed based on the objective and the problem of study stated to increase the teaching and learning system basic statistic and SPSS application in PPPG IPS and PMP Malang, Indonesia. This courseware have been success to application the suitable of learning theory and learning strategy that can improve the user’s learning motivation and comprehend. There are still found the weakness of this courseware that have to be improved in the next and other study. The expectation of developing the basic statistic and SPSS application courseware is to be able to assist the teachers training participant to learn statistic and SPSS in PPPG IPS and PMP Malang, Indonesia. Also the other user who want to learn basic statistic and SPSS anytime, anywhere in Indonesia.
Bednar,A.K. Cunningham, D.,Duffy,T.M & Perry,J.D 1995. Theory Into Practice How do we link ? DLM. Anglin, G.J. (Pnyt). Instructional Technology : Past Present and Future, hlm 100-112. Colorado. Libraries Unlimited ; Inc
Carroll, J.M. 1998. Reconstructing minimalism from minimalism http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=afh&AN=795281&site=ehost-live (30 April 2007)
Carroll, J.M. 1995. Principles and heuristics for designing minimalist instruction.
Technical Communications, MIT Press.
Carroll,J.M., Bellamy,R.K.E. &Rosson,M.B.(1995). Smalltalk scaffolding: a case study of minimalist instruction. In Conference proceedings on Empowering people: Human factors in computing system: special issue of the SIGCHI Bulletin, Seattle: Washington, hal. 423-430.
Chen, I. Anchored Instruction. 2000.
http://www.coe.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/ET-IT/ai.htm (30 April 2007)
Cooper. D,R & Emry, C.W. 1995. Business Research Method. New York : MC Graw Hill Companish. Inch.
Cresswell John W. 2005 Educational Research. Second Edition. New Jersey. Pearson Prentice Hall.
Guftafson, K.L. & Branch, R.M. 1997 Revisioning Models Of Instruction Development. Educational Technology Research and Development 45(3): 73-89.
Hannafin, M.J. & Peck, K.L. 1988. The design, development, and Evaluation of Instructional Software. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
Knowles, M. 1984. The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species (3rd Ed.). Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing.
On Lily & Mazanah Muhamad. 2000. Factor Associated with Learner ‘attitude towards learning trought CD-ROM Courseware : a case study of the discovery centre. Binariang Berhad. Proceeding of the International Conference in education & ICT in the New Millenium, pg. 647-657.
Peter law, 2001. An investigation into how to using simulation software may facilitate the understanding of electronic theory in year 10 pupils http://www.educ.cam.ac.uk/TIPS/plaw.pdf ( 20 April 2007)
Surat Keputusan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan (Mendikbud) Republik Indonesia, Tentang Tugas dan Fungsi Pusat Pengenmbangan Penataran Guru Ilmu Pengeahuan Sosial dan Pendidikan Moral Pancasila (PPPG IPS dan PMP) , Nomor : 0529/0/1990 tanggal 14 Agustus 1990, Jakarta
Zikmund, William G. 2000. Business Research Method ED. Ke-7 – South Western Thomson Learning.
Sterbinsky. A., & Ross,S.M. (2005) Assessment: Formative Evaluation. In Morrisson, Ross, Kemp 5th Ed (2007) Designing Effective Instruction. (pp. 308 – 309)John Wiley &Son Inc.